and annotated by by Gayle Fischer, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department
of History, Salem State College (email@example.com)
and SALEM in History staff
Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a
City and a Government (Jeffersonian America). University of Virginia
Delving into an
extensive archive of letters, diaries, and reports of battles over
matters of etiquette, Catherine Allgor recreates, in the manner of
a nineteenth-century novel, the social events at which the rules of
"petticoat politicking" were set down and broken to the
glory and ruin of denizens of the new federal city.
After Suffrage: Women in Partisan and Electoral Politics before the
New Deal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
history of the accomplishments of women in the decade after suffrage.
Argues that women had a heretofore unrecognized influence on the politics
of that decade through their involvement in social welfare issues
and through new political techniques such as lobbying.
Baker, Jean, ed.
Votes for Women: The Struggle for Suffrage Revisited. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002.
on how the suffrage battle was interwoven with constitutional issues
at the federal and state level and how the suffrage struggle played
out in different regions, especially the West and the South, as well
as the activities of opponents to women's voting. Baker's introductory
essay sets the stage for revisiting suffrage by making explicit the
similarities and differences in interpretations of suffrage and shows
how the movement intersected with other events in American history
and cannot be studied in isolation from them.
Blair, Karen. Clubwoman
as Feminist: True Womanhood Redefined, 1868-1914. New York: Holmes
and Meier, 1980.
Blair argues that
the experiences women had in clubs and club activities was a significant
factor in helping them recognize and assert their rights and responsibilities
in the public arena.
Boylan, Anne M.
The Origins of Women’s Activism: New York and Boston, 1797-1840.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
analyses of more than seventy organizations in New York and Boston
with the stories of the women who founded and led them.
The American Woman: Her Changing Social, Economic and Political
Roles, 1920-1970. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Covers a wide
range of topics and is a good place to start an examination of the
years following suffrage. Chafe concludes that the suffrage movement
was a failure.
The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, CT: Yale University
of the early decades of the 20th century and the period immediately
following the passage of the 19th Amendment. Cott argues that this
was the moment in which modern feminism came into being and pushes
beyond the idea of seeing the change (or lack thereof) within the
bounds of electoral politics as the best (or only) way to gauge the
success of the suffrage movement.
Women and the City: Gender, Space, and Power in Boston, 1870-1940.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Deutsch shows the myriad ways women of all classes, ethnicities and
social positions radically transformed Boston from a city that regulated
and curtailed women's lives to one where they enjoyed not only more
freedom but some power as well.
DuBois, Ellen Carol.
Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s
Movement in America 1848-1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,
In the two decades
since Feminism and Suffrage was first published, the increased presence
of women in politics and the gender gap in voting patterns have focused
renewed attention on an issue generally perceived as nineteenth-century.
For this new edition, DuBois addresses the changing context for the
history of woman suffrage at the millennium.
Echols, Alice. Daring
to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1989.
the emergence of radical feminism in the late 1960s, its rise to dominance
within the women’s movement in the early 1970s, and its decline
in the years that followed. A classic work.
Evans, Sara. Personal
Politics: The Roots of Women’s Liberation in the Civil Rights
Movement and the New Left. New York: Knopf, 1979.
Charts the relationship between the Civil Rights and Women’s
Liberation movements. Focuses on both the challenges women faced within
the Civil Rights movement and the strategies that they learned and
adapted as well.
Feminism in the Heartland. Columbus: Ohio University Press,
a look at second wave feminism away from the big cities that appear
again and again in histories of the movement. The book focuses on
Dayton, Ohio where—rather than the two-branch pattern of second
wave feminism so often seen in large cities— Ezekiel finds only
one branch. This book challenges the universality of the liberal/radical
divide so often repeated in other places and other books.
The Sweetheart of the Silent Majority. Doubleday, 1981.
Examines the life of Phyllis Schlafly.
Garrow, David. Liberty
and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade.
the 50 years of legal and political struggles that culminated in the
1973 Supreme Court decision granting women the freedom to choose abortion.
He introduces the reader to the doctors, lawyers, activists and ordinary
people who stood up on either side of the issue, takes the reader
inside the Supreme Court deliberations, and traces the legacy of Roe
v. Wade on the 25th anniversary of the decision.
Gordon, Ann D.,
ed. African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965. Amherst:
University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
of essays reveals that getting the vote was only one part of black
women’s efforts to access the mainstream of American society.
Kristie Miller, and Elisabeth I. Perry, eds. We Have Come to Stay:
American Women and Political Parties, 1880-1960. Albuquerque: University
of New Mexico Press, 1999.
the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1920
was seen as a watershed in women's political history. The essayists
in this collection argue that women's participation in political parties
has been much more lengthy and varied than previously thought.
From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960.
New York: Knopf, 1989.
A chronicle of the
role of women in American politics from 1960 through the 1980s—both
as individual politicians and in organization such as the National Organization
for Women and the National Women’s Political Caucus. Includes
a detailed bibliography.
Betty Freidan and the Making of the Feminine Mystique: The American
Left, The Cold War, and Modern Feminism. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 1998.
This study of
the early life of women’s movement leader Betty Freidan finds
evidence that challenges Freidan’s portrayal of her journey
from suburban housewife to liberated feminist, as described in her
pivotal The Feminine Mystique (1963). Instead, Horowitz suggests that
Freidan’s work as a labor journalist in her 20s put her in contact
with Old Left activists who would influence her later writing. Through
this, Horowitz finds ideologicalconnections between the Old Left and
the feminist activists of the 1960s.
S. The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1965.
E. Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign against
Woman Suffrage. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997.
that the women of the antisuffrage movement mobilized not as threatened
homemakers but as influential political strategists.
Why We Lost the ERA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
that “if the ERA had been ratified, the Supreme Court would
have been unlikely to use it to bring about major changes in the relations
between American men and women” and that it failed, ultimately,
because the American public was unwilling to permit “any significant
change in gender roles, whether at work, at home, or in society at
G. and Jane S. DeHart. Sex, Gender, and the Politics of the ERA.
Oxford University Press, 1990.
The authors detail
the history of the Equal Rights Amendment, using North Carolina—one
of the states where debate over the ERA was most active—as a
case study. They trace the debate over the ERA and examine the viewpoints
of the three main parties in the battle: the feminists, the anti-ERA
women and the male state legislators.
Muncy, Robyn. Creating
a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991.
on the child welfare reform movement, Muncy argues that there was
a "continuity of reform activities among America's middle-class,
[white, Protestant] women" between the Progressive era and the
New Deal. She illustrates the ways in which women combined traditional
female roles with growing professionalization to create a “female
dominion”—through an interlocking set of organizations
and agencies— in the mostly male world of policy-making. At
the head of this dominion was the Children’s Bureau in the federal
Department of Labor. The dominion ended when the movement achieved
its goal with the passage of New Deal legislation.
L. Everyone was Brave: The Rise and Fall of Feminism in America.
Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Argues that the
feminist movement was a failure. Women did not gain equality with
men, but instead remained mired in their status of second-class citizenship.
Porter, Susan L.,
ed. Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in
Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts. Amherst: University of Massachusetts
A collection of
essays on the history of women in Massachusetts. Looks at issues of
class, ethnicity, gender and power in relationship to women’s
employment (paid and unpaid) and women’s social and familial
networks. Includes a good bibliography on women’s history.
Rosen, Ruth. The
World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America.
New York: Viking, 2000.
the history of the American women's movement from its beginnings in
the 1960s to the present.
Rupp, Leila and
Verta Taylor. Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights
Movement, 1945 to the 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press,
history of the women’s rights movement from the 1940s to the
1960s. They argue that a small elite cadre of activists from the suffrage
movement sustained the later phase of reform.
Strom, Sharon Hartman.
“Leadership and Tactics in the American Woman Suffrage Movement:
A New Perspective from Massachusetts”. The Journal of American
History. 62, 2 (September 1975), 296-315.
Argues that evidence
from Massachusetts between 1901 and 1919 suggests that it was due
to the massive changes both within the rank and file of the suffrage
movement and in the wider arena of social reform that led to the increasingly
organized and mobilized suffrage movement in those years. This is
in contrast to earlier interpretations that give credit for efficiency,
success and militant tactics to a few key, national figures.
Strom, Sharon Hartman.
Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.
presents Florence Hope Luscomb’s story against the backdrop
of Boston politics and larger struggles for social justice. Luscomb
participated in every significant social reform movement of her time—from
securing women's right to vote and supporting trade unionism to advocating
an end to the war in Vietnam. Luscomb also ran for public office:
Boston's city council, Congress, and for Governor of Massachusetts.
African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1998.
This book considers
black women’s involvement in the larger, mostly white-controlled
organizations as well as their work within their own black communities,
institutions, and organizations.
D. On the Move: American Women in the 1970s. Twayne Publishers,
In this popular
history of the women’s movement, Wandersee describes a women’s
movement that was both unified on the “big” issues and
factionalized in politics and philosophy; that had its roots in both
mainstream organizations and the radical New Left; that was both successful
in advancing women’s liberation and a contributor to the conservative
backlash of the 1980s. Wandersee also looks at the impact of the movement
on the women who did not consider themselves activists or feminists
and the legacy of the 1970s.
Weigand, Kate. Red
Feminism: American Communism and the Making of Women’s Liberation.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Red Feminism traces
the development of a distinctive Communist strain of American feminism
from its troubled beginnings in the 1930s, through its rapid growth
in the Congress of American Women during the early years of the Cold
War, to its culmination in Communist Party circles of the late 1940s
and early 1950s.
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Reference Materials: Print
Bolden, Tonya. 33 Things Every Girl Should Know About Women's History.
Crown, 2002.Young Adult.
A book about women
that is actually a collection of stories, poems, history, lists of
organizations and biographies of women who made a difference in the
lives of all American women.
Coppens, Linda Miles.
What American Women Did, 1789-1920: A Year-by-Year Reference.
Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2001.
account of women's accomplishments in the areas of domesticity, work,
education, religion, the arts, law and politics, and reform efforts.
Fisher, Gayle Veronica.
“Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of Woman Suffrage in the United States:
A Bibliographic Essay.” Journal of Women’s History 7,
3 (Fall 1995): 172-199.
Wagnild and Gayle Veronica Fischer. “Edited Collections of Primary
Sources in United States Women’s History: An Annotated Bibliography.”
Journal of Women’s History 7, 4 (Winter
ed. American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of
Women’s History and Culture in the United States. Washington:
Library of Congress, 2001.
Hine, Darlene Clark,
ed. Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Brooklyn,
NY: Carlson Pub., 1993.
Smith, Bonnie Hurd.
Salem Women’s Heritage Trail: Four Centuries of Salem Women.
Salem, MA: Salem Chamber of Commerce, 2000.
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Primary Sources/Primary Sources Included: Print
and Linda Gordon eds. Dear Sisters: Dispatches from the Women’s
Liberation Movement. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
collection of documents specifically focused exclusively on women’s
liberation and the years between the mid 1960s and the mid 1970, before
“feminism” became the term of choice. The narrow and specific
focus of this collection is unique.
C. The Women’s Liberation Movement in America. Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
to the movement provides not only a narrative overview, but also a
wealth of ready-reference materials, including 13 lengthy biographical
profiles of key figures, a broad selection of 15 primary source documents,
a glossary of terms, and a useful annotated bibliography.
ed. American Women Activists’ Writings: An Anthology, 1637-2002.
New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002.
This work is distinguished
from many similar efforts by both its chronological scope it ranges
from Anne Hutchinson's 1637 trial to Hillary Clinton's 1995 speech
at the World Conference on Women in Beijing and by the breadth of
the activism these women have engaged in, which includes Eileen Collins's
being the first woman to pilot a U.S. space shuttle.
ed. Women's Suffrage. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003.
documents give a history of the topic, from "The Movement Begins"
to "The Nineteenth Amendment." Each one is summarized in
the table of contents.
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Women's Suffrage: A Primary Source History of the Women's Rights
Movement in America. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source, 2003.
Gr. 5-8. Books
in the Primary Sources in American History series show young people
how original sources work and how they are used in writing nonfiction…
Suffrage leads off with a discussion of the role of women in early
reform movements, then moves into a more detailed consideration of
the women's movement, including profiles of individual pioneers. Highlighting
chapters are photographs of original documents, declarations from
the first Women's Rights Convention, excerpts from a pamphlet, and
Ash, Maureen. The
Story of the Women's Movement. Chicago: Children's Press, 1989.
Grade 3-6. The
Story of the Women's Movement gives a quick summary of the movement
from its start in England to the women in America who fought for freedom
for the slaves and then for their own rights. The Equal Rights Amendment
and its defeat are included.
Bohannon, Lisa F.
Failure is Impossible: The Story of Susan B. Anthony. Reynolds
Gr 6-9. An account
of the suffragist's life from her childhood to her death in 1906.
…Bohannon weaves interesting social detail into her account
with mention of bankruptcy, religion, household chores, wages, travel
conditions, and convention etiquette. … The author suggests
that intelligence and energy persistently applied really do mean "failure
is impossible." Black-and-white photographs (primarily portraits)
and reproductions are scattered throughout. School Library Journal
Bloomers! Aladdin Library, 1996.
Ages 5-10. A significant
subject--the early struggle for women's rights--receives disappointing
treatment from a Newberry Honor winner. Publishers Weekly
Ching, Jacqueline. Abigail Adams: A Revolutionary Woman. New York:
PowerKids, 2002. This is an example of the new non-fiction books that
combine clear text and helpful illustrations with useful bibliographies
and web-links so that students can extend their research beyond the
covers of one book.
Corey, Shana. You
Forgot Your Skirt, Amelia Bloomer! A Very Improper Story. Scholastic,
Grade 1-3. Text
and pictures flow easily and energetically with comic views of ladies
in their lavish, lusciously colored dresses. Several scenes cascade
down the page, intertwined with type resembling hand-printed letters.
The story keeps a clear focus on the social constraints of confining
clothing…. The concluding essay sketches a bit more detail about
Amelia Bloomer, the attire of her time, and women's continued interest
in "bloomers." Dressed in a well-shaped story, this entertaining
lesson in social history will be especially enjoyed as read-aloud
fare. School Library Journal
Davis, Lucile. Susan
B. Anthony: A Photo-Illustrated Biography. Mankato, Minn: Bridgestone
biography of the early women's rights activist who fought for women's
right to vote.
Leaders of Women's Suffrage. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2001.
Each of the women
in this book dedicated her life to the fight that would eventually
win women the right to vote.
Fritz, Jean, and
Dyanne Disalvo-Ryan. You Want Women to Vote, Lizzie Stanton? Putnam:
Index. Illustrated. Ages 9-12. In this lively biography, Newbery Award-winner
Fritz employs her trademark humor and anecdotal style to sketch out
the life of the woman destined to shoulder the weighty responsibilities
of marriage, motherhood (seven children!), and the fight for women's
rights. Stanton—with her cohort Susan B. Anthony—never
wavered in steadfastness, though she died 18 years before women's
suffrage was achieved.
Harvey, Miles. Women's
Voting Rights. New York: Children's Press, 1996.
Gr 3-5. As in
other titles in the series, an enormous amount of complex history
is broken down into highly readable and accurate text enhanced by
excellent black-and-while and full-color photographs and reproductions.
Valuable resources. School Library Journal
D. An Album of American Women: Their Changing Role. New York:
F. Watts, 1987 .
Grade 4-7. The
highlight here is the abundant and handsome black-and-white illustrations
primarily photographs of infamous, famous, and anonymous American
women throughout this nation's history.
Remember the Ladies: The First Women's Rights Convention. New
York: Scholastic, 1995.
Gr. 4-6. Johnston
shows respect for young readers by sorting out fact from supposition
and, in the introductory note, acknowledging the difficulties of writing
history from incomplete and somewhat unreliable sources. Following
a chronology of the women's rights movement though 1920, there are
source notes for the many quotations in the text. Booklist
E. Failure Is Impossible! The History of American Women's Rights.
Lerner Publishing Group, 2001.
well-documented resource. Kendall frames her discussion of women's
suffrage with an account of the struggles of women throughout the
centuries beginning with early colonists such as Anne Hutchinson.
…Many black-and-white photos and other illustrations add dimension
to the text. Four pages of brief biographies of remarkable women complete
this thorough, multifaceted history.” School Library Journal
Uncommon Faith. Holiday House, 2003.
Grade 7-10. In
Millbrook, MA, in the summer of 1837, a fire in the livery killed
six people and injured many more. But that was only the beginning
of the change in this small New England town. Ten characters tell
the tangled tale, including friends and classmates of Faith Common,
a brash and outspoken 14-year-old who champions the underdog and rallies
the girls against a cruel schoolmaster who believes that "teaching
a girl to master geometry is a bit like teaching a mule to dance."
Her voice is never heard directly, but her story is part of the complex,
interrelated narrative. In the course of the novel, families cope
with disappearance and death, downtrodden women assert their collective
power, a boy stands up to his preacher father and makes his own way
through music, young people in the town help slaves along the Underground
Railroad, and Faith is promised a place in the new Mount Holyoke Female
Seminary. School Library Journal
Lickteig, Mary J.
Amelia Bloomer : A Photo-Illustrated Biography. Mankato, Minn.:
Bridgestone Books, 1998.
A biography of
the temperance leader and women's rights advocate who spent her life
working to improve social conditions for women.
McCully, Emily Arnold.
The Ballot Box Battle. Dragonfly Books, 1998.
The story of Cordelia,
a young girl whose relationship with her neighbor, the great suffragist
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, inspires her to a remarkable act of courage.
Monroe, Judy. The
19th Amendment: Women's Right to Vote. Springfield, NJ: Enslow
Gr 7-9. Monroe
details the women's suffrage struggle with an emphasis on the legal
and constitutional processes necessary to gain ratification. She provides
considerable background about both constitutional history and the
people who led the fight, and also explains the impact of the vote
on women's societal roles and social conditions. From School Library
Moss, Kary L. The
Rights of Women and Girls. New York: Puffin Books, 1998.
Grade 9 Up. This
title may be most valuable for its explanations of important legal
concepts such as common law and precedent, and the distinctions it
makes between civil and criminal law. In addition, various chapters
outline related laws and court decisions…. Still, there is a
respectable bibliography and a list of organizations with addresses
and telephone numbers (no Web sites). A good source of legal information
for students of either gender. School Library Journal
Nash, Carol Rust.
The Fight for Women's Right to Vote in American History. Springfield,
NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1998.
Grade 6-8. Nash
chronicles the events from the first suffrage convention in Seneca
Falls, NY, in 1848 up to the ratification of the 19th Amendment in
1920… At times, the text seems to be compressed and at times
disjointed. School Library Journal
Keevil. Susan B. Anthony: Daring to Vote. Brookfield, Conn.:
Millbrook Press, 1998.
Grade 4-7. Written
clearly and illustrated with period photographs, drawings, and editorial
cartoons reproduced in black and white and full color, this book provides
a basic overview of Anthony's life… Backmatter includes brief
biographical notes on other leading advocates of women's rights, places
to visit, and a time line. School Library Journal
Saller, Carol. Florence
Kelley (On My Own Biographies) Carolrhoda Books, 1997.
Grade 2-3. Although
Kelley was an important figure in the fight against child labor, readers
are left without any real sense of the true person behind the biographical
facts. Large gaps of her life are left undiscussed. In addition, this
beginning reader has an annoying design flaw. Short histories of real
child workers are interspersed with the narrative. Although set in
italics, they are not set off from the main text in any other way,
and children may be confused by the abrupt transitions. From School
Smith, Betsy Covington.
Women Win the Vote. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Silver Burdett
Details the history
of women in America from 1620 to the present as they have fought for
freedom, equality, and particularly the right to vote.
Women's Rights: Changing Attitudes 1900-2000. Austin, Tex.:
Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1999.
Gr 6-9. Women's
Rights offers chapters on "Women in War and Peace," "Revolution
and Repression," "Women's Liberation," and "A
Century of Progress?" among other topics. It gives not only a
historical perspective, but also addresses contemporary issues facing
women around the world.
The Road to Seneca Falls: A Story about Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 1996.
Grade 3-5. This
biography uses Stanton's letters, diaries, and reminiscences as background
but relates the information in story form, resulting in a book that
is enjoyable as well as informative. Black-and-white charcoal-and-pencil
drawings provide a sense of the period. Swain covers only Stanton's
early years and the events leading up to the Seneca Falls convention,
but an afterword describes later events in her life. School Library
Let Women Vote! Brookfield, Conn: Millbrook Press, 1996.
fight for the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.
and annotated by Gayle Fischer, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department
of History, Salem State College (firstname.lastname@example.org) and SALEM
in History staff
Primarily Nineteenth Century
the fall of 2003, this work of public art is installed along
Commonwealth Avenue in Boston’s Back Bay. Depicts Phyllis Wheatley,
Abigail Adams and Lucy Stone.
Book: Two useful sites:
Lady’s Book Online
This site allows
you to access images, articles and other contributions in five editions
of the magazine in 1850. Godey's Lady's Book was one of the most popular
magazines of the19th century and was instrumental in popularizing
and the image and expectation of women as moral keepers of the home.
Each issue contained poetry, fiction, beautiful engraving and articles
by some of the most well-known authors in America. Topics ranged from
fashion advice, to childrearing to domestic concerns--broadly defined.
Lady’s Book – site maintained by Hope Greenberg at the
University of Vermont
This site covers
material that appeared in the magazine between 1855 and 1858 and is
divided into two collections. The first is a “samples”
collection which includes highlights from volumes from 1855-1858 and
is broken down into more specific sections including Illustrations,
Fiction, editorials, and Fashions and Patterns with full-text for
each text document and thumbnail pictures for all illustrations. You
will also find a sample typical full table of contents from an 1857
volume (LIV). The “complete issues” section of the site
includes partial or full volumes of four Godey’s between 1852
and 1855, which can be viewed in their original layout format.
of Women's Suffrage
This Web site
is hosted by The Anthony Center for Women's Leadership, which is located
on the University of Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. It provides a brief history
of North American suffrage and biographies of influential suffragists.
Those included are Alice Stone Blackwell, Antoinette Brown Blackwell,
Harriet Stanton Blatch, Amelia Bloomer, Carrie Chapman Catt, Charlotte
Perkins Gilman, Julia Ward Howe, Lucretia Coffin Mott, Anna Howard
Shaw, Lucy Stone, Sojourner Truth. There are also sections on Women's
Rights Convention Seneca Falls, NY, timelines and a bibliography.
in the woman suffrage movement. A general, political, legal and legislative
history from 1774 to 1881
[Editorial Note: Harriet H. Robinson's Massachusetts in the woman
suffrage movement is perhaps the first serious history of the woman's
rights movement. She apparently got the inspiration for writing it
at an 1880 Commemorative Convention, held in Worcester on the thirtieth
anniversary of the first national woman's rights convention.]
For Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B.
This is the companion
site to the PBS documentary by Ken Burns by the same name. Includes
timelines, background information and primary sources related to both
these two women and their efforts on behalf of women’s rights.
Also includes material and resources related to the broader fight
for women’s suffrage. At this site you will find lesson plans,
articles by respected scholars and bibliographies on not only Stanton
and Anthony, but on the historical moment in which they acted and
contemporary concerns to which they responded. Some multimedia components
on this site may be particularly valuable for classroom teachers.
for Reform: The Early Work of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
Stanton and Anthony
Mini-Edition. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) led the movement for women's rights in the nineteenth
century. The documents in this mini-edition focus on the first decade
of their collaboration, from 1852 until 1741, when they honed their
skills as reformers in New York State. These primary historical sources
are pertinent to the study of women, American politics, New York State,
and antebellum reform movements.
Rights National Historic Park
This site is
the web companion to the Women’s Rights National Historic Park
in Seneca Falls, NY which commemorates women's struggle for equal
rights, and the first Women's Rights Convention, held at the Wesleyan
Chapel in Seneca Falls, NY on July 19 & 20, 1848. Includes information
on the participants, the event, the place and the links between the
convention and other contemporary movements and concerns, namely Abolitionism.
Includes text of the earliest report of the event, as well as one
published some 30 years later. Also includes full text of statement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton delivered at the convention.
Women’s History Project
Women’s History Project documents the lives and history of women
in central and western Massachusetts, but the main draw of this site
is its rich “Historical Library” and “Curricula”
sections that focus on telling the story of the first NATIONAL woman’s
rights convention which took place in Worcester in 1850 which called
for "equality for all, without distinction of sex or color,"
a novel idea even among women’s rights activists. Contemporaries
saw it as the beginning of the organized women's rights movement..
The site offers an introduction to “The Woman Question”
and to the event, placing it in historical context and then offers
visitors access to a wide array of primary sources related to the
event and to the wider mid-19th century fight for equality, including
materials linking women’s rights and abolition, men’s
voices on women’s rights, published commentaries on the convention
and the movement including some in Godey’s Lady’s Book.
These sources are not scanned in, they appear in type. There are editorial
introductions and commentaries on many of them, to help interpret
them for visitors. A “Related Websites” section allows
visitors to access even more primary documents and information about
related archives. The “curricula” section of the site
offers teachers access to two wonderful sets of lesson plans. One,
“Angels and Infidels” includes pre and post material connected
to the dramatic presentation by the same name by Louisa Burns-Bisogno.
The other is called “Making the World Better: The Struggle for
Equality in 19th-Century America” which focuses on the lives
and work of two Massachusetts women: African-American abolitionist
Sarah Parker Remond [from a SALEM family] and abolitionist and suffragist
Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Suffrage and Anti-Suffrage
Film by Katja
von Garnier. Debuted on HBO in February 2004. From website: “IRON
JAWED ANGELS recounts for a contemporary audience a key chapter in
U.S. history: in this case, the struggle of suffragists who fought
for the passage of the 19th Amendment. Focusing on the two defiant
women, Alice Paul (Hilary Swank) and Lucy Burns (Frances O'Connor),
[founders of the National Woman’s Party] the film shows how
these activists broke from the mainstream women's-rights movement
and created a more radical wing, daring to push the boundaries of
political protest to secure women's voting rights in 1920.”
Website offers a synopsis of the film and an overview of the story
Oral History Project
A marvelous resource
created and made available by the Oral History Office at the Bancroft
Library at UC Berkely! Here, you will find complete and fully transcribed
oral histories with women involved in the suffrage campaigns of the
early 20th centuries. The oral histories were completed in the 1970s
and include the recollections of both well-known and rank-and-file
suffragists. Seven prominent figures in the suffrage movement, including
(those with the MOST name recognition) Jeannette Rankin and Alice
Paul are included. These seven women speak about local, regional and
national issues and also mention other members of their cohort including
Carrie Chapman Catt. The site’s homepage gives brief bios of
each of the seven. But, this site goes beyond the histories of the
well-known and includes also five interviews with five diverse ‘ordinary’
women who worked tirelessly for suffrage. Their experiences speak
to those of many like them across the nation who gave speeches, made
their case at luncheons and teas, and/or picketed at the White House.
Links to each interview also provide information for researchers about
how to cite as a source.
two valuable companion sites created for the Library of Congress’
American Memory Collection
the National American Woman Suffrage Association
This is a selected
collection of text sources from the Library of Congress’ NAWSA
collection. It includes 167 books, pamphlets and other material related
to the long and at times complex campaign for woman suffrage (and
opposition to it). Includes material from and about many of the NWASA’s
leaders and proponents. The site is searchable by subject and includes
links to other resources. A very useful timeline is included as well
as ideas for teaching with the material.
for Women” Suffrage Pictures, 1850-1920
of 38 images from the Prints and Photographs Division, Library of
Congress includes portraits of many well-known suffrage activists,
as well as photographs of parades, picketing and anti-suffrage displays.
Here too, you will find cartoons that make a variety of statements
about the movement. Includes thumbnail images that can be enlarged.
This page takes
you back to 1912 when the public debate over women's suffrage was
contested in editorial pages, political cartoons, the streets, and
in the home. The pro-suffrage arguments, the anti-suffrage arguments,
and information about the political process are portrayed using cartoons,
photographs, and essays.
This is the prototype
of the Open Collections Program. This site will provide access to
digitized books (over 2000), manuscripts (10,000 pages) and images
(1,000) from the collections of Harvard University Libraries and Museums
on the topic of women in the U.S. economy from 1870-1930. The goal
of the Harvard Libraries Open Collections Program is to increase the
availability and use of textual and visual historical resources for
teaching, learning, and research by selecting resources from the Harvard
Libraries in broad topic areas, putting them in digital format, and
providing access to them through the World Wide Web and the Harvard
CWLU Herstory Website
A great place
to start any search for materials related to women’s liberation.
A wonderful site that tells the story of the Chicago Women’s
Liberation Union, a group of women who came together between 1969-1977
(out of a variety of social movements of the time) to create grassroots
programs to change the experiences of women and push for widespread
revolution in American society. This site includes much about the
history of CWLU, but also helps place the group more broadly in the
history of both women’s liberation and women’s rights
work more generally. Includes a timeline of women’s liberation,
a fantastic section of full-text versions of “Classic Feminist
Writings” and a section of “Historical Links” that
connects visitors to a host of other high-quality sites related to
women’s history and archival resources. This final section is
a fantastic gateway to much of the best the web has to offer.
from the Women's Liberation Movement: An On-line Archival Collection
in this small but historically significant on-line archival collection
from the Special Collections Library at Duke University were selected
by Duke professor Anne Valk to support assignments in her classes
in the late 1990s. Material was also contributed by Rosalyn Baxandall
(SUNY, Old Westbury) and Linda Gordon (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
who have recently published an edited collection of documents from
the women’s liberation movement (Dear Sisters: Dispatches
from the Women’s Liberation Movement. New York: Basic Books,
2000). This archive is particularly useful, as it includes not just
text documents but also some visual material, a satirical play, a
song book (lyrics and music), minutes of a grassroots group and even
a report on unequal funding for school athletics by a recent high
Feminist Chronicles, 1953 – 1993
A chronology of
the feminist movement [primarily in the U.S.] from 1953 to 1993. Covers
Events, Issues, and Backlash. Also includes early documents from the
National Organization for Women and a bibliography. Online version
of a print publication.
of Social Change” at Sophia Smith Collection: Women’s History
Manuscripts at Smith College
valuable section of this website is the portion that offers documents
collections and related Lesson Plans connected to women and organization
who were “Agents of Social Change” in American history
from the 19th and 20th centuries. These materials are geared to middle
and high-school students.
(March 2000): Elizabeth Cady Stanton Issue. Teacher's Guide
In this issue,
Cobblestone features the life of social reformer Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
a famous nineteenth-century feminist. She helped organize the first
U.S. women's rights convention in 1848 to gain support for the right
of women to vote.
(March 1985): Susan B. Anthony Issue.
With Documents Lesson Plan: Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment
The National Archives'
salute to women's suffrage, including primary sources, activities
and links to related websites for educators and students.
Reference Materials: Web
Women’s History: A Research Guide
to print and Internet reference sources, as well as to selected large
primary source collections. The guide also provides information about
the tools researchers can use to find additional books, articles,
dissertations, and primary sources.” – from website.
Search Directory Category: History
WWWomen is a commercial
site, but is a good gateway to finding all sorts of collections and
information about women’s history (not just American) on the
web. Be sure to carefully assess the sites you visit from here, but
there are links to academic libraries, scholarly websites, museums
and primary sources.