to both a variety of push factors in their native countries and
the pull of economic opportunity in the rapidly industrializing
and urbanizing United States, a huge wave of "new" immigrants
flocked to America's growing urban centers in the years surrounding
the turn of the twentieth century, years also marked by an upsurge
in reformist tendencies. These immigrants, often settling in ethnic
enclaves, posed a challenge to reformers and educators who frequently
wanted to find ways to Americanize potential citizens and their
children. In this session we will explore the causes and consequences
of the "new" immigration (including the urban growth
and industrialization that shaped the social and economic landscape
of the Progressive Era), and pay particular attention to the efforts
of settlement house workers to provide social services and education
to America's newest arrivals.
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Hutchinson. Social Work and Social Order: The Settlement Movement
in Two Industrial Cities, 1889-1930. Urbana and Chicago: University
of Illinois Press, 1991. (Introduction; 11-18; Chapter 2 "Adjusting
Their Life to Ours: From Foreign House to American Settlement")
J. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era. New
York: Hill and Wang, 1998. (Chapter 3 "Immigrants and Industrial
America" and Bibliographic Essay)
"Myth and Reality: The Pattern of Relationship between the
Circle and the 'New Immigrants' on Chicago's West Side, 1890-1919."
Journal of American Ethnic History vol. 2 no 2. (Spring 1983):
Kish. "Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers."
Signs vol.10 (Summer 1985): 658-677. (optional)
Twenty Years at Hull House. New York: Macmillan, 1910; New York:
Penguin Books 1998. (selections are from the Penguin edition)
(Chapter 6 "The Subjective Necessity of Social Settlements";
Chapter 11 "Immigrants and Their Children")
Henry H. English for Coming Citizens. New York: Charles Scribner's
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1. What type(s)
of relationship(s) exist between the four major components of
this session's title "Immigration, Urbanization, Americanization
and the Settlement House Movement"
2. What ideas
and/or perceived problems shaped settlement house workers' programs
and projects? Did these programs and projects meet the needs of
the people they were intended to serve? What disconnects, if any,
3. To what
extent and in what ways did settlement houses serve the needs
of both those who founded and worked at them and the individuals
and groups who were their espoused constituents?
the impact of gender and gender roles on both the creation of
and activities of settlement houses.
5. In what
ways did all "new immigrants" share similar experiences
in the United States? In what way(s) did experiences differ for
and even within specific groups? What accounts for difference(s)?
6. What were
the main goals of "Americanization" activities and movements?
7. Can you
identify and describe the following: The challenges facing proponents
of Americanization?; The tensions that the movement highlighted?;
The unexpected consequences?
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