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The Civil Rights Movement, SNC, and the Making of Eyes on the Prize Primary Sources

Theme: Social Changes and Social Reform
Topic: The Civil Rights Movement, SNCC, and the Making of
Eyes on the Prize
Date: April 2004

From Partner Collections
From Other Local Archives and Collections
Additional Primary Sources Used in Content and Follow-up Sessions

Selected and annotated by SALEM in History staff.

From Partner Collections

Note: The Log is the Salem State College student newspaper. Issues of that publication noted below are located in the Salem State College Archives. For more information, contact Susan Edwards, Archivist at:

Consider the CandidatesThe Log (Salem State College) 14 March 1972.

This article highlights candidates and their platforms for running for the Student Government Association President.

Foote, Nancy. “Meet the S.G.A.” The Log (Salem State College) 24 October 1972.

The representatives of the Student Government Association and their specific responsibilities were introduced to the community in this article. These student leaders (including John Tierney, president) played an active role on campus during a time of racial tension.

Garvey, John. “Uncle Frank’s CabinThe Log (Salem State College) 20 February 1973.

"Uncle Frank" refers to Salem College President, Frank Keegan. Racial tensions on campus were discussed in a campus meeting organized by the Student Government Association and featured four speakers on behalf of the Afro-American Society. The meeting responded to outrage over a recent mock "slave auction" at Bowditch Hall on the Salem State College campus.

Gerald Heads Minority AffairsThe Log (Salem State College) 6 March 1973.

Gerald, chief advisor to the college's Afro-American Society, was selected to direct the newly-created Minority Affairs Program.

Grey, Barbara. “SSC Hosts Activities in Black, Feminist CulturesThe Log (Salem State College) 13 March 1973.

Jesse Jackson was a freatured speaker during a "Black High School Day" sponsored by the Afro-American Society at Salem State College. Jackson highlighted the importance of education, awareness, and hard work in his speech, presented to approximately 400 students from Salem and surrounding communities.

Holder, Harry. “Black High School DayThe Log (Salem State College) 11 April 1972.

On April 5, the Afro-American Society at Salem State College hosted an event for about 400 students from surrounding communities. The focus was on the importance of education and educational opportunites for Black students.

Kaitz, Bette. “Afro-Am Receives AnswersThe Log (Salem State College) 28 February 1973.

This announcement outlines the response to 10 demands outlined in the Valentine's Day Black Manifesto at Salem State College which sought better race relations and improved conditions for Black students at the institution.

Sheehan, Terry. “Valentine’s Day RevisitedThe Log (Salem State College) 20 February 1973.

Sheehan recounts the events that led the Afro-American Society to issue the Valentine's Day Black Manifesto at Salem State College, and the emergency campus meeting that followed.

Taylor, Judi. “Afro-Am Philosophy and BudgetThe Log (Salem State College) 24 October 1972.

Taylor overviews the Afro-American Society, founded in 1969. She includes a statement of the mission from the organization's constitution, leadership, and budget. She invites teh organization to contribute to The Log more information about their philosophy and events in the future

Taylor, Judi. “HEW Completes Investigation, Will Soon Forward Results to the CollegeThe Log (Salem State College) 8 May 1973.

A team from the Office for Civil Rights conducted a 4-day review of Salem State College to investigate Affirmative-Action issues at the faculty and administrative levels.

Taylor, Judi. “The Ink is Black, The Paper’s White. Together We Learn to Read and Write The Log (Salem State College) 20 February 1973.

The Valentine's Day Black Manifesto of Salem State College was prepared by the Afro-American Society and reviewed by the institution's administration, faculty, and staff, who met for 10 hours with the organization and created official statements to the points in the Manifesto. The Afro-American Society was to issue their response to those statements on this date.

Umoja Ururu/The Afro-American Society. The Valentine's Day Black Manifesto of Salem State College. February 14, 1973. Salem State College Archives, Salem, MA.

"We are angy!" begins the protest document created by students in the wake of a mock "slave auction" held at one of the dorms at Salem State College. The resulting manuscript includes a series of demands by the protesters, and the response by the Student Government Association, Faculty, and college administration.

White, Steve and Dan Knox. “Score: Afro-Am $12,000 / Everyone Else: 0 The Log (Salem State College) 24 October 1972.

White and Knox write that, "We feel that it is time that the blacks on campus start getting treated equally and not superior than everyone else." In support of their complaint, they cite statistics about the relative numbers of black students on campus and budget allocations for the Afro Am Society and other organizations. Another article on the same opinion page, "Log Letters," by Judi Taylor overviews the Afro-American Society mission, organization, and their budget allocations.

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From Other Local Archives and Collections

Note: Articles listed below are available on microfilm at the Salem Public Library.

“Angry Negroes Vote March on Gov. Wallace as Blame for Bombing of 4 Children” Salem Evening News 18 September 1963.

“Angry Negroes to March on Ala. Capital in Protest” Boston Globe 17 September 1963.

“Birmingham Girds for More Demonstrations by Negroes” Salem Evening News , 15 April 1963.

Albert Boutwell, described in the article as "a segregationalist, but considered a moderate on the issue," took office on April 15 during a period of racial unrest, demonstrations, and violence. Boutwell was one of three men on a city commission who were replaced. The former commissioners were fighting their replacement before the end of their terms, and threatened to take the matter to court.

“Bomb Rips Negro Church: 4 Girls Die in Birmingham” Boston Globe 16 September 1963.

“Desegregated Alabama Schools 85 Percent Full Boston Sunday Globe 15 September 1963.

Although many white students refused to attend newly-integrated public schools, the majority of schools retained general attendance.

“Explosive Birmingham Patrolled Amid Terror; Racial Riots Unchecked” Salem Evening News 16 September 1963.

In the wake of a bombing that left four African American girls dead, national and local government leaders and social and religious figures mobilized to address the racial violence and unrest in Birmingham.

“Negro Children Reject Selves, Educator Says” Boston Globe 18 September 1963.

“’O, My God! They’ve Killed Our Children’” Boston Globe 16 September 1963.

“Segregation Must be Admitted, Boston Leaders Assert” Boston Globe 17 September 1963.

“’Such Malice Inconceivable,’ Says Shocked Mayor’” Boston Globe 16 September 1963.

“Wallace Posts $5000 Reward” Boston Globe 16 September 1963.

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Additional Primary Sources Used in Content and Follow-up Sessions

King, Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail” 16 April 1963.

This version of appeared in his 1964 book Why We Can't Wait, and is a Massachusetts "seminal document." View the statement that prompted this letter.

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