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Upstairs/Downstairs: Domestic Servants and Mistresses in 19th and 20th Century America - Resources and Links

Theme: An Industrious People: American Economic History
Upstairs/Downstairs: Domestic Servants and Mistresses in 19th and 20th Century America
Date: February 2006

Mistresses & Maids: Secondary Sources | Mistresses & Maids: Primary Sources | Maids: Secondary Sources | Maids: Primary Sources
| Mistresses: Secondary Sources | Mistresses: Primary Sources
| Housework | Household Engineering: Secondary Sources | Household Engineering: Primary Sources| Advice Books: Secondary Sources | Advice Books: Primary Sources |
Young Adult Literature | Web Resources | Additional Online Resources

Resources & Links compiled and annotated by Gayle Fischer, Ph.D. Department of History, Salem State College and SALEM in History staff

Annotated Bibliography


Secondary Sources:

Faye E. Dudden. Serving Women: Household Service in 19th Century America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983.

Dudden uses the books and papers of the middle- and upper-class employers as sources for her study of domestic service in the north in the 19th century. She describes a transition from temporary "hired help" to live-in "domestics" and explores how the latter category lived closer but had more distance in class and hierarchy. Serving Women also suggests that the 19th century separation of labor that occurred in factories also occurred in the home.

Diane M. Hotten-Somers, "Relinquishing and Reclaiming Independence: Irish Domestic Servants, American Middle-Class Mistresses, and Assimilation, 1850-1920." Eire-Ireland 36, no. 1-2 (2001): 185-201.

Irish female immigrants, most of whom arrived poor, unskilled, and unmarried, eagerly embraced the opportunity to work in domestic service. Middle-class mistresses had a great deal of prejudice against the Irish and felt it was their duty to instruct Irish maids in how to keep a home properly and to assimilate servants into middle-class Protestant culture and its moral teachings.

Frank E. Huggett, "Introduction," and "Mistresses and Maids" in Life Below Stairs: Domestic Servants In England from Victorian Times (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977).

David M. Katzman. Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

This monograph explores live-in servants and issues of gender and class. Katzman argues that live-in service came back into popularity by the 1920s as women found higher-status factory jobs. Includes a 25-page bibliography.

Jane Lancaster, "Encouraging Faitbful Domestic Servants: Race, Deviance, and Control in Providence, 1820-1850." Rhode Island History 51, no. 3

The Providence Society for the Encouragement of Faithful Domestic Servants came into existence in 1830 to promote class harmony and make domestic service more attractive through several means, including the payment of bonuses for good service.

Carol Lasser, "The Domestic Balance of Power: Relations between Mistress and Maid in Nineteenth Century New England." Labor History 28, no. 1 (1987): 5-22.

Examines the changing relations between female domestic servants and their female employers in southern New England, especially Boston, during the 19th century.

Carol S. Lasser, "A 'Pleasingly Oppressive' Burden: The Transformation of Domestic Service and Female Charity in Salem, 1800-1840." Essex Institute Historical Collections 116, no. 3 (1980): 156-175.

The Salem Female Charitable Society, founded in 1801, directed its efforts toward providing for indigent female children: first in a semi-institutional setting, then in homes, as legally bound domestic servants.

Aife Murray, "Miss Margaret's Emily Dickinson." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 24, no. 3 (1999): 697-732.

Live-in maids Margaret O'Brien and Margaret Maher contributed to Emily Dickinson's writing by freeing her from household duties and providing emotional support.

Phyllis M. Palmer, "The Businessman's Wife at Work" in Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

Elizabeth O'Leary, From Morning to Night: Domestic Service in Maymont House and the Gilded Age South. University Press of Virginia: 2003.

In From Morning to Night, Elizabeth O'Leary takes the reader behind the scenes in the opulent mansion of the Richmond multimillionaire James H. Dooley and his wife, Sallie. Drawing upon personal letters, business and government documents, and numerous 'oral histories of older Richmonders--both black and white--O'Leary examines the parallel and divergent viewpoints of server and served in this Virginia version of "Upstairs/ Downstairs."

Susan M. Strasser, "Mistress and Maid, Employer and Employee: Domestic Service Reform in the United States, 1892-1920." Marxist Perspectives 1, no. 4 (1978): 52-67.

Describes the rise of employment of servants during 1892-1920 in the United States and the resultant reforms.

Daniel E. Sutherland, "The Servant Problem: An Index of Antebellum Americanism." Southern Studies 18, no. 4 (1979): 488-503.

Antebellum southerners and northerners agreed that domestic servants, white or black, were inefficient, unreliable, deceitful, and indolent, and that servant work in itself was degrading.

Daniel E. Sutherland. Americans and their Servants: Domestic Service in the United States from 1800-1920. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Sutherland describes a complex relationship between employers and servants. He looks at the everyday life of male and female servants, regional differences and the changes in service over the 19th century.

Janet Theophano, "Introduction," and "Cookbooks as Autobiography" in Eat My Words: Reading Women's Lives Through the Cookbooks They Wrote (New York: Palgrave, 2002).

Primary Sources:

Mrs. Christine Broderick, "Suppose Our Servants Didn't Live with Us," Ladies' Home Journal (October 1914), 102.

"How My Wife Keeps Her Maids" [author unknown: a thankful husband], Harper's Bazaar (December 1909), 1231.

"An Ideal Mistress" [author unknown: a servant], Outlook, 10 August 1912, 838-39.

Annette Jaynes Miller, "Why I Never Have Trouble with My Servants," Ladies' Home Journal (March 1905), 4, 52.

Judith Rollins. Between Women: Domestics and Their Employers. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1985.

Between Women is the result of forty in-depth interviews, interviews enhanced by the author's own experience as a domestic worker for ten employers in the greater Boston area.

Lucy Maynard Salmon. Domestic Service. New York: MacMillan, 1897; reprint, New York: AmoPress, 1972. Also available through HEARTH

Domestic Service argues that the subordination and exploitation of women formed an essential part of society and economy. Focusing on the masses of women- rather than the exceptional, privileged few who had made "contributions" -Salmon showed that the low status of women was not a matter of outdated customs but a continuing feature of modern society.

Lucy M. Salmon, "Domestic Service from the Standpoint of the Employee," Cosmopolitan (July 1893).

Harriet Prescott Spofford, The Servant Girl Question (Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1881).

Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Ireland's Daughters in Their New Homes," Donahoe's Magazine (January 1879): 53-54.

--------, “Mistress and Maid,” Donahue’s Magazine (May 1885): 442

P. A. M. Taylor, "A Beacon Hill Domestic: The Diary of Lorenza Stevens Berbineau." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 98(1986): 90-115.

The diary of Lorenza Stevens Berbineau (1806-69), a servant in the household of Francis Lowell II, provides a window into 19th-century Boston upper-class life.

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Secondary Sources

Bettina Berch, "'The Sphinx in the Household': A New Look at the History of Household Workers," Review of Radical Political Economics 16, no. 1 (1984): 105-120.

Francesco Cordasco. The Immigrant Woman in North America: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected References. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985.

Variety of published primary sources and secondary works.

Seamus Grimes and Michael Connolly, "The Migration Link Between Cois Fharraige and Portland, Maine, 1880s to 1920s." Irish Geography [Ireland] 22, no. 1 (1989): 2230.

Shipping connections between Galway, Ireland, and Portland, Maine, together with employment opportunities for longshoremen and domestic servants, were among the more important reasons for the large emigration from Cois Fharraige to Portland from about 1880 to 1920.

Elizabeth Ross Haynes, "Negroes in Domestic Service," The Journal of Negro History, 8 (October 1923).

Glenna Matthews. "Just a Housewife": The Rise and Fall of Domesticity in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

In this survey of housekeeping in America since 1750, Matthews argues that the antebellum period was a "Golden Age of Domesticity" when homemaking had a higher status than ever before or since. The 20th century, by contrast, saw a focus on consumerism that reduced the skill of housework and the cultural respect it was given. Critics of "Just a Housewife" have pointed out that the "golden age" was not universal.

Marla R. Miller, "Eggs on the Sand: Domestic Servants and Their Children in Federal New England," Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual Proceedings 26 (2001): 184-195.

Female servants at Charles and Elizabeth Porter Phelps's Forty Acres farm in Hadley, Massachusetts, demonstrated different strategies for handling their own child-rearing responsibilities during 1772-1810.

Elizabeth L. O'Leary. Beck and Call: Servants in Nineteenth-Century American Painting. Washington: Smithsonian Inst. Pr., 1996.

The book examines the ways in which nineteenth-century American painters codified and occasionally subverted prevailing attitudes toward servants and the immigrant, working-class, and African American cultures they represented. O'Leary combines readings of works by Charles Willson Peale, Winslow Homer, and many others with research into depictions of domestic help in advertisements, popular prints, diaries, and fiction.

Susan L. Porter, "Victorian Values in the Marketplace: Single Women and Work in Boston, 1800-1850." Social Science History 17, no. 1 (1993): 109-133.

Early in the 19th century, the Boston Female Asylum offered a refuge for destitute children who had lost at least one parent. After several years, the young women were indentured to local families to work as domestic servants until they reached 18 years of age.

Daniel E. Sutherland. "Modernizing Domestic Service," in American Home Life, 1880-1930: A Social History of Spaces and Services, Jessica Foy and Thomas J. Schlereth, eds. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

Doris Weatherford, "Foreign Domestics" in Foreign and Female: Immigrant Women in America, 1840-1930 (Facts on File, Inc, 1995).

Primary Sources

Childress, Alice. Like One of the Family: Conversations from a Domestic's Life. Boston: Beacon, 1986.

In a series of one-way conversations with her friend Marge, Mildred examines life from the perspective of an African-American - "negro" - domestic worker in New York City in the 1950s. These monologues were originally published as a weekly series called "Conversations from Life" in Paul Robeson's newspaper Freedom and continued as "Here's Mildred" in the Baltimore Afro-American.

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. Living In, Living Out: African American Domestics in Washington, D.C., 1910-1940. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

This oral history portrays the lives of African American women who migrated from the rural South to work as domestic servants in Washington, D.C., in the early decades of this century. In Living In, Living Out, Elizabeth Clark Lewis narrates the personal experiences of eighty-one women who worked for wealthy white families.

Pettengill, Lillian. Toilers of the Home: The Record of a College Woman's Experience as Domestic Servant. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1903.

Unknown, "The Experience of a 'Hired Girl'" Outlook (April 6, 1912): 778-79.

Unknown, "On Being a Servant," Living Age July 1893.

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Secondary Sources

Ruth Schwartz Cowan, "Two Washes in the Morning and A Bridge Party at Night: The American Housewife Between the Wars," Women’s Studies 3 (1976): 147-172.

Glenna Matthews. "Just a Housewife”: The Rise and Fall of Domesticity in America. Oxford University Press, 1989.

A sweeping survey of the changing image and perception of the housewife in America from colonial times to the present. Using novels, letters, popular magazines, and cookbooks, Matthews demonstrates how the 19th-century cult of domesticity heightened the esteem accorded housewives. By contrast, industrialization, the growth of a consumer culture, and the emergence of professional experts in home economics transformed the nature of housework and led to its devaluation.

Primary Sources

Lillian Moller Gilbreth. The home-maker and her job. D. Appleton and Co, 1930.

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Secondary Sources

Ruth Schwartz Cowan. More Workfor Mother: The Ironies of Technology From the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

More Work for Mother describes changes from the traditional farming family, with its gender specific but equally time-consuming tasks, toward completely "separate spheres" for the sexes and households as units of consumption rather than production.

Sarah Stage and Virginia B. Vincenti, eds. Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Rethinking Home Economics documents the evolution of a profession from the home economics movement launched by Ellen Richards in the early twentieth century to the modern field renamed Family and Consumer Sciences in 1994. The essays in this volume show the range of activities pursued under the rubric of home economics, from dietetics and parenting, teaching and cooperative extension work, to test kitchen and product development. Exploration of the ways in which gender, race, and class influenced women's options in colleges and universities, hospitals, business, and industry, as well as government has provided a greater understanding of the obstacles women encountered and the strategies they used to gain legitimacy as the field developed." - Cornell University Press

Susan Strasser. Never Done: A History of American Housework. Owl Books, 2000.

Never Done is the first history of American housework. Beginning with a description of household chores of the nineteenth century, Strasser demonstrates how industrialization transformed the nature of women's work.

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Secondary Sources

William D. Andrews and Deborah C. Andrews, "Technology and the Housewife in Nineteenth Century America," Women's Studies 2 (1974): 309-328.

Bettina Berch, "Scientific Management in the Home: The Empress's New Clothes," Journal of American Culture 3 (Fall 1980): 440-445.

Ruth Schwartz Cowan, "A Case Study of Technological and Social Change: The Washing Machine and the Working Wife" in Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner (eds), Clio's Consciousness Raised: New Perspectives on the History of Women (New York, 1974): 245-253.

Ruth Schwartz Cowan. "The "industrial revolution" in the home: household technology and social change in the 20th century." Technology and culture, v. 17, Jan. 1976: 1-23.

This review essay considers the scholarship on "women as housewives" up thorough the article's publication in 1976. The author looks at how historians, sociologists and economists have described the economic contributions and social role of housewives. A useful place to find additional secondary sources.

Bonnie J. Fox "Selling the Mechanized Household: 70 Years of Ads in Ladies' Home Journal. Gender & Society 4 (March 1990): 25-40.

This article analyzes ads from Ladies' Home Journal from 1910-1980. Fox argues that the ads for household goods reinforced women as domestic laborers rather than freeing them from housework. This article supports the thesis that mechanization did not liberate women from household drudgery. Includes images.

Christine Hardyment, From Mangle to Microwave: The Mechanization of Household Work (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1988).

Ellen Lupton and J. Abbott Miller, The Bathroom, the Kitchen, and the Aesthetics of Waste: A Process of Elimination (Princeton Architectural Press, 1992.)

Mary Drake McFeely, "The Kitchen Laboratory" in Can She Bake a Cherry Pie? American Women and the Kitchen in the Twentieth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000).

Ellen M. Plante. The American Kitchen 1700 to the Present: From Hearth to Highrise. New York: Facts on File, 1995.

A history of the evolution of the focal point of the American home, beginning with the colonial kitchen and traveling to the present. Plante gives readers not only a clear view of how the room has changed, but also of how the family itself has changed.

Primary Sources

Martha Bensley Bruere, "The New Homemaking," Outlook 100 (March 16, 1912): 591-595.

Edna D. Day, "Model Kitchen That Saves Time and Steps," Beautiful Homes 1 (February 1909): 13.

Russell Fisher, "A House Designed for Housekeeping," Country Life in America 29 (February 1916): 38.

Paul T. Frankl, "Baths and Bath Dressing Rooms," House and Garden (August 1927): 51-55.

Lillian Gilbreth, "Efficiency Methods Applied to Kitchen Design," Architectural Record 67 (March 1930): 291-294.

Lillian Moller Gilbreth. Management in the home: Happier living through saving time and energy. Dodd, Mead; Rev. and enl. ed edition, 1962.

John B. Guernsey, "Scientific Management in the Home," Outlook 100 (April 13, 1912): 821-825.

A.E. Kennelly, "Electricity in the Household," Scribner's Magazine 7 (January 1890): 102-115.

Anna Leach, "Science in the Model Kitchen," Cosmopolitan 27 (May 1899): 95-104.

Isabelle McDougall, "An Ideal Kitchen," House Beautiful 13 (December 1902): 31.

"Modern Plumbing," Architectural Record 8 (July 1898): 111-113.

Ellen Richards, "Housekeeping in the Twentieth Century," American Kitchen Magazine 12 (March 1900): 203-207.

Grace Van Everen Stoughton, "Scientific Training as Applied to the Household," House Beautiful 15 (December 1903): 63.

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Secondary Sources

Sarah A. Leavitt. FromCatharine Beecher to Martha Stewart: A Cultural History of Domestic Advice. University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

From Catharine Beecher To Martha Stewart is a thoughtful and informative overview of the history of domestic advice, gleaned from research into hundreds of manuals written throughout the past 150 years.

Primary Sources

Lydia Ray Balderston, Housewifery (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1923)

Martha B. Bruere, Increasing Home Efficiency (New York, 1913)

Christine Frederick, Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home

Mrs. Burton Kingsland, Etiquette for All Occasions (New York: The Platt & Nourse Co., 1919).

Robert Roberts. The House Servant's Directory, or a Monitor for Private Families: Comprising Hints on the Arrangements and Performance of Servants' Work. Reprint ed. (original publ. 1827). Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe, 1998.

Carlotta Norton Smith, The Homemaker: Her Science. With a Treatise on Home Etiquette (New York, 1905).

Bertha M. Terrill, Household Management (Chicago, 1914).

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Bolden, Tonya. 33 Things Every Girl Should Know About Women's History. Crown, 2002. Young Adult.

A collection of stories, poems and biographies of women in American history.

Gilbreth, Frank B. Jr., and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, Cheaper by the Dozen (reprinted).

Ingraham, Gloria D. An Album of American Women: Their Changing Role. New York: F. Watts, 1987.

Grade 4-7. Includes photographs and illustrations of women in American history.

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American Women: A Gateway to LOC Resources for the Study of Women’s History and Culture in the U.S. Library of Congress.

This website is an online research guide for those studying American women's history. It provides information and links to various departments of the Library of Congress that have photographs, manuscripts, oral histories and other sources relating to women's history. Also includes tips on how to most effectively search the LOC websites.

A Women's Work is Never Done
American Antiquarian Society

This online exhibit about the history of women's work in America features images from the collection of the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester. Also includes a bibliography.

Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America

This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places property, "T. M. Sinclair Mansion," (also known as Brucemore) as well as primary and secondary materials available at Brucemore. This lesson could be used in units on the Gilded Age, including the development of industrial America, changes in urban living, and the experiences of immigrants and women.

Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920
Duke University

One of the collections of Duke University's Digital Scriptorium, this site presents over 9,000 images drawn from the Rare Book, Manuscript and Special Collection Library at Duke University. All relate to the emergence of advertising in America. Providing evidence of the emergence and evolution of advertising, the items on this site are organized into eleven categories, but are also searchable across categories. Also included is a timeline of advertising history and developments during the period covered by the collections. Of particular interest are the ads for cleaning and beauty products.

From Domesticity to Modernity: What Was Home Economics?
Mann Library, Cornell University

This is an online exhibit about home economics at Cornell University, highlighting the contributions the land grant college made towards the field, beginning in the early 1900s. Two particularly interesting pages describe a course on marriage offered at Cornell in the 1930s, and the “Domecon babies"-- orphans who spent the first two years of their lives being raised by Cornell co-eds in "practice apartments."

HEARTH (Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition, History)
Mann Library, Cornell University

HEARTH is an online collection of books and journals on home economics and. related topics published between 1850 and 1950. The website includes full text of the historical material, as well as introductory essays and bibliographies on subjects including "Clothing & Textiles," "Food & Nutrition," "Housekeeping & Etiquette" and "Hygiene." The material can be browsed by subject, author or publication date, and is fully searchable. Also see the "Human Ecology at Cornell University" historical photograph collection at:

History of Household Technology [Bibliography]
Library of Congress

This detailed online bibliography from the Library of Congress lists books, articles and websites on the history of household technology. Also check out "The History of Household Technology with Constance Carr," an online presentation by the head of the Science Reference Section at the Library of Congress ( The presentation "describes the evolution in the technology of washing machines, irons, and stoves and its effect on the work of women in the home" and is available as a web cast or a print transcription.

"In Service and Beyond: Domestic Life and Work in a Gilded Age Mansion," Richmond, VA.

Maymont, the 100-acre estate owned by James Henry and Sallie May Dooley, in Richmond, Virginia, has also added a "below stairs" interpretation. Entitled "In Service and Beyond: Domestic Work and Life in a Gilded Age Mansion," this effort goes beyond the sort of role-playing interpretation other historic house museums have adopted. The project, which included Maymont servants' descendants, explores how these domestic workers lived "beyond" their work in Richmond, at a time (1897) when Richmond had one servant for every thirteen residents.

North American Women's Letters and Diaries

This is the largest electronic collection of women's diaries and correspondence ever assembled. The writings provide a detailed record of what women wore, what they ate, what they read, the conditions under which they worked, and how they amused themselves. The user must buy a subscription to use the sources on this site. However, many documents are available through free directories and product showcases.

Schlesinger Library
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

The Schlesinger Library is one of the best places in the nation to study the history of women in the United State. The Schlesinger Library's website provides access to information about its collection of "letters and diaries, photographs, books and periodicals, ephemera, oral histories, and audiovisual materials that document the history of women, families, and organizations, primarily in the 19th and 20th centuries." It is also home to a large culinary collection, and the Radcliffe Archives. You will not find primary sources on-line here, and the materials do not circulate, but the Schlesinger's rich resources are free and open to the public. The collection is completely searchable through the Harvard University library system and instructions for searching are found on the Schlesinger's website. Reference Librarians are available to help researchers.

Sophia Smith Collection
Five College Archives & Manuscript Collections

"The Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College is an internationally recognized repository of manuscripts, photographs, periodicals and other primary sources in women's history." This collection documents the lives and histories of women in the United States from the colonial era to the present and is the oldest repository of women's history in the U.S. The collections include visual material as well as manuscript and printed sources. The collection is not available on line, but many of the finding aids are now on line. The public may conduct research in the collections free of charge. Of particular interest are the papers of Ellen Richards (1842-1911), a leader in the field of domestic science: _main.html.

Stephen Phillips Memorial Trust House

Located in Salem, Massachusetts, this Federal style mansion contains a family collection that spans five generations. The Phillips House is taking part in an initiative by the Northeast Massachusetts Regional Library System (NMRLS) to add documents to its digital library.

The Making of a Homemaker
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

This is an online exhibit about homemaking as it was portrayed in 19th century books, pamphlets and other publications. Includes digital images and documents (with annotations) from the Smithsonian Institution Libraries and the National Museum of American History.

Women Working, 1800-1930
Open Collections Project, Harvard University

"Women Working, 1800-1930" is an online collection of more than 500,000 photos, documents, artifacts and other primary sources from the collections of the museums and libraries at Harvard University. The material is annotated, searchable and can be browsed by item type or subject. The website also has a Teacher's Resource page with collections of sources organized around themes including race, immigration, settlement houses and childhood labor. An excellent resource!

Additional Online Resources

The Making of a Homemaker
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Godey's Lady's Book

Ladies Repository, 1841-1876

American Centuries
Memorial Hall Museum


Includes a detailed look at Women's Labor History.

Across the Generations: Exploring US History Through Family Papers

Harpers Bazaar, 1867-1900

Louisa May Alcott's Little Women
Or chapter-by-chapter at

Harland, Marion. Common Sense in the Household: A Manual for Practical Housewifery. New York: Scribner & Co. 1872.

"On the Side of the Maids, by Eliza Lynne Linton. On the Side of the Mistresses, by A Suffering Mistress (probably Eliza Lynn Linton)"

The Glory of Woman: Prescriptive Literature in the Sallie Bingham Center forW omen's History and Culture

Michelle Jean Hoppe, "Servants-- Their Hierarchy and Duties"

Emigrant Letters

Patricia West, "Irish Immigrant Workers in Antebellum New York: The Experience of Domestic Servants at Van Buren's Lindenwald"

The daily life of Irish domestic servants at Martin Van Buren's New York estate, Lindenwald, included strenuous kitchen work, arduous laundry duties, daily housecleaning, and little or no time for recreation.

Manor House

Christine Frederick, "It Works Like a Charm: Scientific Management and the Servant Problem," The New Housekeeping series, Ladies Home Journal (December 1912), 16, 79.

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(none suggested)

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