People of the First
Light: Wampanoag History
Russell. Gods of War, Gods of Peace:
How the Meeting of Native and Colonial Religions Shaped Early America. New York Harcourt,
exploration of 200 years of Native-American/ Euro-American relations
ending in the 1830s that places religion and faith at the center of
the discussion—for both sides.
Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang,
A wonderful ecological history of colonial New
England. Highlights the differences
between (and consequences of) Native American and European relationship(s)
and interaction(s) with the land.
Grimes, John, Christian F. Feest and Mary Lou
Curran. Uncommon Legacies: Native
American Art from the Peabody Essex Museum.
of Washington Press,
Haefeli, Evan and Kevin Sweeny. Captors and Captives: The 1704 French and Indian
Raid on Deerfield. Amherst:
University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.
Celebrates the diversity, significance and power
of the PEM’s collection of Native American art – one of the U.S.’s most important
collections of its type. 119 beautiful color plates of
individual objects are accompanied by extensive notes contextualizing
and analyzing each one. Book is arranged by geographic region, although
the Northeast is not as well represented as other areas. Book also includes
essays on the history of collecting Native Americana and modern Native
of the events at Deerfield,
MA most well-known as the
event that led to the captivity narrative of Mary Rowlandson. Haefeli
and Sweeny dig deeper and tell a more complex and important story. By giving equal
weight to all participants -- including New England family farmers,
Canadian colonists, French officials, Abenaki warriors, and Mohawk women
-- the authors reveal connections between cultures and histories usually
studied as separate entities, and complicate our understanding of the
social and political landscape of colonial New England. Many voices are heard in this book.
Jill. The Name of War: King Philip’s
War and the Origins of American Identity. NewYork:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
this provocative work of cultural history Lepore argues that King Philip’s
war was central to the creation and shape of an American identity due
as much (if not more) to the way
the war was written about during and after the fact, as for the events
of the war itself. Lepore takes her title from a debate from the 1670s
about what to call the fighting going on at that time, and focuses her
study on both the many and varied written accounts of the bloodletting, and on how these accounts sharpened perceived differences
between Europeans and Native Americans. By exploring the nature of war,
memory and writing, Lepore makes clear the very real power of all three
in shaping not only our “knowledge” of
an event but our understanding of what it means to be American—and where
native Americans fit (or don’t) into such a category.
Morrison. Dane. A
Praying People: Massachusett Acculturation and the Failure of the Puritan
Mission, 1600-1690. American Indian Studies, Vol. 2.
New York: Peter Lang, 1998.
Nabakov, Peter. Native American Testimony: Chronicle of Indian White Relations from Prophecy to Present 1492 – 1992. New
York: Penguin, 1992.
account of the efforts and actions of the Massachusett people who, devastated
by the epidemics of 1616-1619, sought cultural revitalization through
and by becoming “praying Indians.” Offers a sensitive and nuanced look
at the relationship between efforts Native American cultural survival
and European efforts at acculturation. Explains the ultimate destruction
of native cultural autonomy as a result of the changing agendas of subsequent
generations of Puritan colonists.
Judith. Native American History: A Chronology of a Culture’s Vast Accomplishments
and their Links to World Events. New
York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
American Testimony is a compilation of Native peoples' thoughts
and concerns regarding the major influences on their history and people
after the arrival of the settlers. This heartfelt book is a great way
to bring this difficult history to life and give
voice to a new perspective.
This unique reference book consists of a central
timeline that juxtaposes Native peoples' history, accomplishments, culture
and heroes with 'mainstream' Western culture and events. The book also
includes several in depth introductions to specific Native peoples and
vital points in their history.
Howard S. Indian New
England Before the Mayflower. Hanover,
NH: University Press of New England. 1980.
Russell’s book is an excellent overview of Southern
New England life before the arrival of the settlers. Explains
intricate details about traditional ways of hunting, fishing and gathering
as well as discussions of family relationships, travel and government.
Russell does not rely on any oral sources.
Neal. Manitou and Providence:
Indians, Europeans, and the Making of New England, 1500-1643. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1982.
Weinstein, Laurie, ed.
Traditions: The Native Peoples of New England.
Bergin and Garvey, 1994.
is a well-written account of the early contact and interactions between
the Europeans and the Indians of New England. It also offers the often-omitted
Indian perspective on this troubled
time in history.
Laurie Weinstein edits this collection of histories
written by a variety of scholars both native and non-native. The essays
include the Pequot, Mohegan, Narragansett, Schaghticoke, Penobscot,
and Passamaquoddy peoples and focus on trade, foods, interactions with
the settlers, and the varied ways Native people have survived and maintained
artistic and cultural traditions from prehistoric times to the present.
All primary documents reflect the perspective and cultural lens of the
writer. The following, when used with care and caution, are filled with
information about both the English mindset in the 17th and 18th
centuries and the daily life of Wampanoag people during this devastating
period in their history.
Published Primary Sources
Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation 1620 -1647. Introduction by Francis
Murphy. New York:
Random House, 1981.
Diary Of King Philip's War 1675 –
76. Introduction by Alan and Mary Simpson. Chester, CT:
Pequot Press, 1975.
Written by Gov. William Bradford, this text
offers a timeline of the settlers' earliest actions in the new world.
It includes early relations with the Wampanoag, Squanto, the settlers
first explorations of Cape Cod, and the relationship between the settlers
and their sponsors back in Europe.
Mourt’s Relation: A Journey of the Pilgrims
Edited and with an introduction by Dwight B. Heath. Originally Published
1622. Bedford, MA:
Applewood Press, 1963.
This text documents
Col. Benjamin Church's role and observations regarding the King Philip's
War. Introduction to the 1975 edition (by Alan and Mary Simpson) offers
an overview of the lead-up to the “war,” with particular attention paid
to the grievances of the Wampanoag people thanks to the inclusion of
a primary document written by James Easton, a Rhode Island Quaker.
Peters, Russell. Clambake. Minneapolis:
Lerner Publications Co., 1992.
in 1622 under the title A Relation
or Journal of the English Plantation
settled at Plymouth, this is the
first published account of the coming of the Pilgrims to the New
World to settle Plymouth Plantation. Written much like a
day-to-day journal, this account was intended to draw support and validation
for the settlement at Plymouth.
Includes accounts of Native Americans, early relations between the two
groups, ethnographic information about the land, a rendering of the
first “Thanksgiving,” and views of the natural environment among many
Swamp, Chief Jake.
Giving Thanks: A Native American Good Morning
York: Lee &Low Books, 1995.
great story about a grandfather sharing a community tradition with his
grandson. The book is focused
entirely on contemporary native life and the maintenance of cultural
identity and tradition. Clambake is filled with beautiful photographs
of Wampanoag people today and the Mashpee homeland.
is a simple book that offers an important message about Native values
and the importance of giving thanks
to all things everyday. Great for young students.
Kate. Giving Thanks: The 1621 Harvest Feast. New York: Scholastic, 2001.
This book was also
shot during the Plimoth Plantation photo shoot. Although it contains
beautiful photographs that could be used in the classroom, and accurate
pictures of Wampanoag clothing, homes and everyday objects at the time
of the settlers' arrival, the relationship between the Wampanoag and
Pilgrim boy is not believable and is historically inaccurate.
Kate. Tapenum's Day. New
York: Scholastic, 1996.
Thanks: The 1621 Harvest Feast, this book is both visually beautiful
and historically accurate. The story shares the struggle of a Wampanoag
boy in the 1600's yearning to be seen by his elders as a man. The book
imparts important cultural values and, like Giving Thanks, illustrates
Wampanoag daily life in the 1600's with beauty and accuracy.
Caduto, Michael and
Bruchac, Joseph. Keepers Series: Keepers of the Earth, Keepers
of the Animals, and Keepers
of the Light. Golden, Co: Fulcrum Publishing.
series of curriculum guides written by storyteller Joe Bruchac. Each
book focuses on a different
topic, ie. Animals, Earth, Astronomy, through a collection of Oral history from all over Native America and engaging and hands on
activities for all ages.
Karen and Lisa Harjo. Indian Country: Teacher's Guide.
Golden, Co: North American
excellent curriculum for older students. (Grade 7 - High School) The
focus of the unit is modern Indian issues all over the country as well
as thorough examinations of major trends in Native American history,
such as boarding schools and the Indian wars.
James. Lies My Teacher Told Me.
New York: Touchstone,
Lies My Teacher
Told Me is a real eye opener. James Loewen researches key moments
in American history and compares
the truth to the text in our children’s textbooks. Most importantly,
it encourages students to think about not only the facts, but the perspective
of the person doing the reporting and the lens that colors their
Thanksgiving: Teaching Thanksgiving - including the Wampanoag
The Children's Museum Boston,
2002. (Available from Museum's Kit department online, www.bostonkids.org,
or by phone (617) 426 6500 ext. 231.)
A curriculum co-written by Wampanoag people about the many seasonal thanksgivings
throughout the year. The curriculum includes, background material shared
by Wampanoag people and activity ideas geared to grades K-5. The
curriculum concludes with a
discussion of the many perspectives on the 'First' Thanksgiving.
and Web Resources
A complete website which tells Wampanoag history
from its earliest beginnings to today through the voices and images of
Wampanoag people. Site includes photos of museum collections and tribal
homelands as well as audio clips and resource lists.
A searchable catalog of the tribe’s huge library
and archives with early documents, maps and items from popular culture
The museum is the newest addition to the Smithsonian Institution –2004.
This is a beautiful site with teacher resources and curriculum that can
be downloaded. Also includes links to other Native American websites.
website includes ARTSCAPE (see at top of homepage) which makes available
a vast, searchable, on-line collection of Native American objects from
various tribes and periods.
The Plimoth Plantation website offers background
materials for teachers and an interactive curriculum and online activity
for students. Also offers reading and resource lists.Of particular interest
is the portion of the website called: Investigating the First Thanksgiving: You are the Historian -- http://www.plimoth.org/OLC/index_js2.html.
This section of the website investigates and reinterprets the first Thanksgiving.
This site offers a wealth of primary source
materials and commentary on the social history of Plymouth Colony from
1620-1691. Sources include (but are not limited to) wills, probate records,
maps, criminal records, documents about master-servant relationships and
Native American disputes. Biographical sketches of early inhabitants of
Plymouth colony can be found
here as well. Site also includes work of, and in tribute to James Deetz,
a leading scholar in historic archeology. Texts on this site are fully
This website combines stories, artifacts, documents,
maps and a timeline to help tell ALL sides of the 1704 raid on Deerfield, MA,
the Pacomtuck homeland. In that raid, approximately 300 French and Native
allies captured 112 men, women and children from Deerfield and forced
them on a march to Canada.
Some were redeemed while others chose to remain with the French and Native
captors. The event has been interpreted in many ways over the intervening
years and this website is designed to engage visitors with the fundamental
question of how to interpret the events of the winter of 1704. Hear from
all of the groups involved—Wobanaki, Kanienkehaka, Wendat, French and
English—as you try to decide whether the assault was a brutal attack on
a peaceful settlement, or a justified military action against a settlement
on Native homeland. Site also offers valuable bibliographies and links
to other sites and resources.
The Wampanoag Tribe
of Aquinnah’s website which includes, information about the tribal government,
history, curriculum, and bibliographies.